Long-Term Treatment with Aqueous Garlic and/or Tomato Suspensions Decreases Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Jenifer
Bom,1 Patrícia Gunutzmann,1 Elizabeth C. Pérez Hurtado,1 Jussara M. R.
Maragno-Correa,2 Silvia Regina Kleeb,3 and Maria Anete Lallo1
and Experimental Pathology Post-Graduation, Paulista University
(UNIP), Rua José Maria Whitaker 290, 05622-001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil 2Pharmacology Department, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Sena Madureira, 04021-001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil 3Veterinary Medicine, University Metodista of São Paulo, Rua Alfeu Tavares 149, 09641-000 São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil
evaluated the preventive and therapeutic effects of aqueous
suspensions of garlic, tomato, and garlic + tomato in the development
of experimental Ehrlich tumors in mice. The aqueous suspensions (2%)
were administered over a short term for 30 days before tumor
inoculation and 12 days afterward, and suspensions at 6% were
administered for 180 days before inoculation and for 12 days afterward.
The volume, number, and characteristics of the tumor cells and AgNOR
counts were determined to compare the different treatments. Aqueous
6% suspensions of garlic, tomato, and garlic + tomato given over the
long term significantly reduced tumor growth but when given over the
short term, they did not alter tumor growth.
A Dietary Tomato Supplement Prevents Prostate Cancer in TRAMP Mice Tania Pannellini1,3, Manuela Iezzi1,3, Marcella Liberatore1,3, Federica Sabatini1,3, Stefano Iacobelli1,3, Cosmo Rossi3, Saverio Alberti3, Carmine Di Ilio2,3, Paola Vitaglione4, Vincenzo Fogliano4, and Mauro Piantelli1,3
Manuela Iezzi, Department of Oncology and Neurosciences and CeSI Foundation, University “G. d' Annunzio,” 66013 Chieti, Italy
Abstract Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) is a model for progressive prostate cancer that mirrors the stages of the human form. In this study, the effects of a diet enriched with processed whole tomatoes on survival, tumorigenesis, and progression of prostate cancer, and the antioxidant and inflammatory status of TRAMP mice were investigated. Tomato diet significantly increased overall survival (P < 0.01), delayed progression from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to adenocarcinoma, and decreased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma. Biochemical data disclosed an increase in serum antioxidant activity and a reduction of serum inflammation/angiogenesis biomarkers of particular importance in prostate carcinogenesis.
Conclusion Daily consumption of a tomato-rich diet was highly effective in preventing prostate cancer in TRAMP mice .In addition to its direct effects on tumor cells, tomato, a functional food containing a mixture of pleiotropic com-pounds (47), can be regarded as a biological response modifier whose establishment of an anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic environment prevents tumor onset and progression
Multitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene Richard B. van Breemen and Natasa Pajkovic
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois College of Pharmacy, 833 S. Wood St., Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Abstract An acyclic, non-provitamin A carotene, lycopene is responsible for the red pigmentation of ripe tomatoes and some other edible fruits such as watermelon and papaya. Lycopene is also a potent antioxidant and scavenger of free radicals. Multiple retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of tomato products containing lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. These epidemiological studies are supported by numerous in vitro assays using cell cultures that show anti-cancer activities and cancer chemoprevention activities of lycopene in many cell lines including prostate cancer cells. These activities include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting metastasis, preventing oxidative stress, and up-regulating the antioxidant response element so that cells can produce cytoprotective enzymes against prooxidants and electrophiles. In vivo animal studies and Phase I and II clinical trials have shown that lycopene supplements are non-toxic and that lycopene is orally bioavailable. Furthermore, lycopene is concentrated in prostate tissue and localized to the nucleus. In addition, some oxygenated metabolites of lycopene have been identified, and might be active as chemoprevention agents. The next phase of research concerning lycopene as a chemoprevention agent will be Phase II clinical trials of efficacy that are placebo-controlled, randomized and double blind. These clinical trials are required to establish the efficacy of lycopene supplementation.
Tomato Phytochemicals and Prostate Cancer Risk Jessica K. Campbell*, Kirstie Canene-Adams*, Brian L. Lindshield*, Thomas W.-M. Boileau*,, Steven K. Clinton** and John W. Erdman, Jr*,3
Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801; Procter and Gamble Pet Health and Nutrition, Lewisburg, OH 45338; ** Divison of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Columbus, OH 43210
ABSTRACT Mounting evidence over the past decade suggests that the consumption of fresh and processed tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The emerging hypothesis is that lycopene,the primary red carotenoid in tomatoes, may be the principle phytochemical responsible for this reduction in risk. A number of potential mechanisms by which lycopene may act have emerged,including serving as an important in vivo antioxidant, enhancing cell-to-cell communication via increasing gap junctions between cells, and modulating cell-cycle progression. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C,and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols,which also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Tomatoes also contain significant quantities of potassium, as well as some vitamin A and vitamin E. Our laboratory has been interested in identifying specific components or combination of components in tomatoes that are responsible for reducing prostate cancer risk. We carried out cell culture trials to evaluate the effects of tomato carotenoids and tomato polyphenols on growth of prostate cancer cells. We also evaluated the ability of freeze-dried whole-tomato powder or lycopene alone to reduce growth of prostate tumors in rats. This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence,evaluating the relationship between prostate cancer risk and tomato consumption, and presents experimental data from this and other laboratories that support the hypothesis that whole tomato and its phytochemical components reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
Conclusion A majority of prospective and case-control epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that diets rich in tomatoes and tomato products are associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer(5,23). In vitro studies and animal trials using tomato and tomato phytochemicals have provided further data supporting these epidemiological associations. Several small clinical trials have also suggested that supplementation with tomatoes or tomato extract may positively influence biomarkers related to prostate carcinogenesis consistent with a reduction in risk. The various components of tomatoes, including carotenoids and polyphenols,that may mediate anticarcinogenic effects remain speculative.Considerable attention has focused on lycopene as the primary compound that may contribute to decreased prostate cancer risk,yet this hypothesis requires further investigation as studies of pure lycopene as a chemopreventive agent are only beginning to be reported (30–32). Other components may influence prostate carcinogenesis, such as other tomato carotenoids and polyphenols, perhaps in combination with lycopene, and warrant further investigation in animal and human studies. Although several plausible anticarcinogenic mechanisms of tomato components have been proposed, it is essential to emphasize the necessity of research in humans to support these hypotheses. Because ofthe abundance of supporting data from epidemiological, in vitro,animal, and small clinical studies, it is time to begin to evaluate the relation of tomatoes to prostate cancer risk in larger intervention studies, which would provide a more definitive test of the hypothesist hat increased intake of tomatoes and tomato products decreases the risk of prostate cancer.