Centipeda minima (Ebushicao) extract inhibits PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells Yu-qing Guo12, Hai-yan Sun12, Chi-on Chan2, Bei-bei Liu2, Jian-hong Wu2, Shun-wan Chan2, Daniel Kam-Wah Mok2, Anfernee Kai-Wing Tse3, Zhi-ling Yu3 and Si-bao Chen12*
Abstract Background Centipeda minima (Ebushicao) has been used for the treatment of various diseases, such as nasal allergies, rhinitis and sinusitis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cough, and headache. This study aims to investigate the anticancer activities of Centipeda minima ethanol extracts (CME) against nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-1 and their underlying mechanism.
Methods CNE-1 cells were treated with different concentrations (15–50 μg/mL) of CME for different time intervals (24, 48, and 72 h). Cytotoxicity of CME was determined by MTT assay. Cell morphological changes were observed by fluorescence microscopy after HO 33258 staining. Cell cycle status was evaluated by flow cytometry following propidium iodide staining. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry following annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The levels of apoptosis-associated and PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling related proteins were measured by western blotting analysis.
Results CME (15–50 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of CNE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P = 0.026 for 15 μg/mL, P < 0.001 for 25, 30, 40, and 50 μg/mL, respectively); the IC 50values (μg/mL) were 41.57 ± 0.17, 30.34 ± 0.06 and 24.98 ± 0.08 for 24, 48 and 72 h treatments, respectively. Significant morphological changes of CNE-1 cells displaying apoptosis were observed after CME treatment. CME showed low cytotoxicity toward normal LO2 cells. CNE-1 cells were arrested in the G2/M phase while treated with 15, 25, 40 μg/mL of CME, respectively (P = 0.032,P = 0.0053, P < 0.001). CME (15, 25, 40 μg/mL) down-regulated Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.032,P = 0.0074, P < 0.001), and up-regulated Bax (P = 0.026, P = 0.0056, P < 0.001) with activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and PARP observed in CNE-1 cells (P = 0.015, P = 0.0067,P < 0.001 for caspase 3; P = 0.210, 0.028, < 0.001 for caspase 8; P = 0.152, 0.082, 0.0080 for caspase 9; P = 0.265, 0.0072, < 0.001 for PARP). CME suppressed the activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway (P = 0.03, 0.0007, 0.004, 0.006, 0.022 for p-PI3K, p-Akt-Ser 473 , p-Akt-Thr 308 , p-mTOR-Ser 2448 , p-mTOR-Ser 2481 , respectively after 40 μg/mL of CME treated for 24 h).
Conclusion CME inhibited the proliferation of CNE-1 cells and activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway.
Lectin from green speckled lentil seeds (Lens culinaris) triggered apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines Yau Sang Chan1, Huimin Yu1, Lixin Xia1 and Tzi Bun Ng2*
Abstract Background The green speckled lentil seed (Lens culinaris) lectin (GSLL) exhibits hemagglutinating activity, and possesses some properties distinct from those of other lentil lectins (e.g., molecular size, biological activities) that deserve further investigation. This study aims to investigate the basic properties (e.g., molecular size, amino acid sequence, sugar specificity) and biological activities (e.g., antiproliferative activity) of GSLL.
Methods GSLL was purified by successive fractionation on SP-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, Mono Q, and Superdex 75. The biochemical properties of GSLL were investigated by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and sugar inhibition tests. For the biological activities, purified lyophilized GSLL was sterilized, adjusted to concentrations from 1 to 0 mg/mL (by twofold serial dilution) in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with fetal bovine serum, and examined by using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, and western blotting after treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines with the lectin.
Results GSLL appeared as a 21-kDa band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE. It was composed of two subunits with molecular sizes of 17 and ~4 kDa. It exhibited specificity in binding to glucose and mannose, as well as glucosides and mannosides. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed similarity of GSLL to L. culinaris lectin (LcL), especially higher coverage of the β-chain of LcL. A 48-h treatment with GSLL exerted antiproliferative effects on nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines with significant inhibition at 0.125 mg/mL (P < 0.001) and 1 mg/mL (P = 0.004), respectively, and these effects were attenuated in the presence of glucose and mannose. GSLL induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cells, with detectable phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial depolarization, and cell cycle arrest. Western blot analysis suggested that GSLL triggered the extrinsic apoptotic pathway involving caspase 3, 8, and 9 in CNE1 cells.
Conclusion GSLL possessed some different properties from LcL (e.g., lower pI), and increased caspase 3, 8, and 9 activity in CNE1 cells.