Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants against human cholangiocarcinoma, laryngeal and hepatocarcinoma cells. in vitro Wiratchanee Mahavorasirikul1, Vithoon Viyanant1, Wanna Chaijaroenkul1, Arunporn Itharat2, Kesara Na-Bangchang1* 1Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Pathumtani 12121, Thailand 2Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Center, Thammasart University (Rangsit Campus), Pathumtani 12121, Thailand
Abstract Background: Cholangiocarcinoma is a serious public health in Thailand with increasing incidence and mortality rates. The present study aimed to investigate cytotoxic activities of crude ethanol extracts of a total of 28 plants and 5 recipes used in Thai folklore medicine against human cholangiocarcinoma (CL-6), human laryngeal (Hep-2), and human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell lines in vitro.
Methods: Cytotoxic activity of the plant extracts against the cancerous cell lines compared with normal cell line (renal epithelial cell: HRE) were assessed using MTT assay. 5-fluorouracil was used as a positive control. The IC50 (concentration that inhibits cell growth by 50%) and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated. Results: The extracts from seven plant species (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, Ligusticum sinense, Mimusops elengi) and one folklore recipe (Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai) exhibited promising activity against the cholangiocarcinoma CL-6 cell line with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the five plants and one recipe (Atractylodes lancea, Kaempferia galangal, Zingiber officinal, Piper chaba, Mesua ferrea, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhairecipe) showed potent cytotoxic activity with mean IC50 values of 24.09, 37.36, 34.26,40.74, 48.23 and 44.12 μg/ml, respectively. All possessed high activity against Hep-2 cell with mean IC50 ranging from 18.93 to 32.40 μg/ml. In contrast, activity against the hepatoma cell HepG2 varied markedly; mean IC50 ranged from 9.67 to 115.47 μg/ml. The only promising extract was from Zingiber officinal (IC50 = 9.67 μg/ml). The sensitivity of all the four cells to 5-FU also varied according to cell types, particularly with CL-6 cell (IC50 = 757 micromolar). The extract from Atractylodes lancea appears to be both the most potent and most selective against cholangiocarcinoma (IC50 = 24.09 μg/ml, SI = 8.6).
Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts from five plants and one folklore recipe showed potent cytotoxic activity against CL-6 cell. Sensitivity to other cancerous cell lines varied according to cell types and the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 appears to be the most resistant to the tested extracts.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine LINK TO FULL ARTICLE Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancerous (malignant) growth in one of the ducts that carries bilebile from the liver to the small intestine.