Abstract The Chinese herbal mixture, Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL), has been proven to suppress the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells and is currently regarded as a complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. Our previous study using acute promyelocytic leukemia cells uncovered its effect on the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) which is often overexpressed in cancer cells resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors via hypermethylation. Herein, we explored the effects of THL in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that also demonstrate elevated DNMT1. The results show that THL dose-dependently downregulated DNMT1 accompanied by the induction of tumor suppressors such as p21 and p15. THL arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and decreased the protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, phospho-pRb, and AKT. DNMT1 inhibition was previously reported to exert a radiosensitizing effect in cancer cells through the repression of DNA repair. We found that THL enhanced radiation-induced clonogenic cell death in MCF-7 cells and decreased the level of DNA double-strand break repair protein, Rad51. Our observations may be the result of DNMT1 downregulation. Due to the fact that DNMT1 inhibition is now a mainstream strategy for anticancer therapy, further clinical trials of THL to confirm its clinical efficacy are warranted.
The Hepatoprotective Effect of Haoqin Qingdan Decoction against Liver Injury Induced by a Chemotherapeutic Drug Cyclophosphamide Xiaojiang Li, Baole Li, and Yingjie Jia
Department of Oncology, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 314 An Shan Xi Dao, Nan Kai District, Tianjin 300193, China
Abstract Haoqin Qingdan decoction (HQQD), a modern Chinese formula, has been widely used in Eastern Asia. Our study focuses on the hepatoprotective effect of HQQD against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity. S180, a kind of ascites tumor cells, was used to establish S180-bearing mice, followed by the injection of cyclophosphamide (CP, 80 mg/kg) every other day for 5 times. HQQD was used intragastrically at the dose of 80 g/kg, 40 g/kg, and 20 g/kg twice a day for 12 days. HL-7702 hepatic cell line was incubated with HQQD-medicated serum. Then we detected the effects of HQQD on (i) tumor suppression; (ii) morphological examination; (iii) SOD, MDA, GSH, ALT, and AST; (iv) cleaved caspase-3 expression and (v) cellular viability. CP caused dramatic elevations of AST, ALT, and MDA, while HQQD notably attenuated these elevations. SOD and GSH were notably increased, which were efficiently attenuated by HQQD. CP injection significantly increased apoptosis by increasing cleaved caspase-3 expression, which was obviously inhibited by HQQD, accompanied by the improvement of cells viability. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Therefore, HQQD may protect liver tissue through attenuating oxidative stress and the caspase-3-dependent intrinsic apoptosis induced by CP, which suggests the potentially therapeutic effect of HQQD in the use of alkylating agent for cancer chemotherapy.
Synergistic property of cordycepin in cultivated Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells.
Cordyceps militaris is a well-known Chinese traditional medicinal mushroom frequently used for tonics and recently of a potential interest for cancer intervention. Here, we explored the cancer cell killing activity of the hot water extracts of C. militaris cultured mycelia ([CM.sub.MY]) and cultivated fruiting bodies ([CM.sub.FB]). We found that [CM.sub.FB] exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect against various cancer cells over [CM.sub.MY]. Apoptotic phenotypes including apoptotic body formation, DNA laddering, caspase 3 activation and cleavage of PARP proteins were induced by [CM.sub.FB] treatment but only slightly induced by same concentration of [CM.sub.MY] treatment in human HL-60 leukemia cells. Cordycepin in [CM.sub.FB] (10.47 mg/g) is significantly higher (~15.2 times) than that of [CM.sub.MY] (0.69 mg/g). Using isobolographic analysis, the synergy of cytotoxicity was observed across different combined concentrations of [CM.sub.MY] and cordycepin. By complementing cordycepin into [CM.sub.MY] to the level comparable with CMFB, we observed that [CM.sub.MY] (500 [micro]g/ml) with cordycepin (4.8 [micro]g/ml) induced apoptosis to a level similar to that induced by [CM.sub.FB] (500 [micro]g/ml). Together, our results suggest that cordycepin possesses a synergistic cytotoxic effect with Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells and therefore explaining a better anti-proliferating activity of [CM.sub.FB] over [CM.sub.MY]
Abstract Pancreatic cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, due to aggressive growth, high metastatic rates during the early stage and the lack of an effective therapeutic approach. We previously showed that Qingyihuaji (QYHJ), a seven-herb Chinese medicine formula, exhibited significant anti-cancer effects in pancreatic cancer, associated with modifications in the tumor microenvironment, particularly the inhibition of cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) activation. In the present study, we generated CAF and paired normal fibroblast (NF) cultures from resected human pancreatic cancer tissues. We observed that CAFs exhibited an enhanced capacity for inducing pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion compared with NFs, while QYHJ-treated CAFs exhibited decreased migration and invasion-promoting capacities in vitro. The results of further analyses indicated that compared with NFs, CAFs exhibit increased CXCL1, 2 and 8 expression, contributing to the enhanced invasion-promoting capacities of these cells, while QYHJ treatment significantly suppressed CAF proliferation activities and the production of CAF-derived CXCL1, 2 and 8. These in vitro observations were confirmed in mice models of human pancreatic cancer. Taken together, these results suggested that suppressing the tumor-promoting capacity of CAFs through Chinese herbal medicine attenuates pancreatic cancer cell invasion.
Toona Sinensis and Moschus Decoction Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells Hong Zhen,1 Yifei Zhang,1 Zhijia Fang,2 Zhiwei Huang,2 Chongge You,3 and Ping Shi1
1State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620, China 3Lanzhou University Second Hospital, 82 Cuiying Gate, Lanzhou 730030, China
Toona sinensis and Moschus are two herb materials used in traditional Chinese medicine, most commonly for their various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three decoctions from Toona sinensis, Moschus, and Toona sinensis and Moschus in combination on cell growth in several normal and cancer cell lines by cell viability assay. The results showed that the combined decoction exhibited the strongest anticancer effects, compared to two single decoctions. The observations indicated that the combined decoction did not induce cell apoptosis and autophagy in HeLa cells by fluorescence microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the combined decoction arrested HeLa cell cycle progression in S-phase. After the decoction incubation, among 41 cell cycle related genes, eight were reduced, while five were increased in mRNA levels by real-time PCR assay. Western blotting showed that there were no apparent changes of protein levels of Cyclin E1, while P27 expression significantly declined and the levels of CDC7 and CDK7 obviously increased. The data suggest that the RB pathway is partially responsible for the decoction-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Therefore, the combined decoction may have therapeutic potential as an anticancer formula for certain cancers.
Conclusion This study is the first to report the anticancer activity of decoction of Toona sinensis and Moschus in combination. Furthermore, we have shown that the Toona sinensis and Moschus decoction exhibits its anticancer effects by inducing cell cycle arrest in S-phase via mRNA regulation of cell cycle related proteins in HeLa cells. Our data provide strong evidence that the Toona sinensis and Moschus decoction could be potentially utilized for the treatment of some cancers.
1 State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, University of Macau, Av. Padre Toma's Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macao SAR, China 2 Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Av. Padre Toma's Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macao SAR, China 3 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 548 Binwen Rd., Binjiang Dist., Hangzhou 310053, Zhejiang, China 4 College of Pharmacy, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.1 Huatuo Rd., Shangjie University Town, Fuzhou 350108, Fujian, China
Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.
Conclusion Natural products such as GA, curcumin, β-elemene et al. derived from Chinese medicinal herbs are potential candidates for anti-cancer therapeutic drugs
Oral Administration of Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang ‘Ninjin’yoeito’ Protects Against Hematotoxicity and Induces Immature Erythroid Progenitor Cells in 5-Fluorouracil-induced Anemia
Fumihide Takano,1 Yasuyuki Ohta,1 Tomoaki Tanaka,1 Kenroh Sasaki,2 Kyoko Kobayashi,2 Tomoya Takahashi,1 Nobuo Yahagi,1 Fumihiko Yoshizaki,2 Shinji Fushiya,3 and Tomihisa Ohta11Department of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, 22nd Department of Pharmacognosy, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai and 3Department of Kampo Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Saitama, Japan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of four different Japanese and Chinese herbal prescriptions, Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang (Ninjin’yoeito, NYT), Chai-Hu-Gui-Zhi-Gan-Jiang-Tang (Saikokeishikankyoto, SKKT), Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (Shikunshito, SKT) and Si-Wu-Tang (Shimotsuto, SMT), which are traditionally used for anemia and fatigue, against hematotoxicity in mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). NYT 1–100 mg kg–1 day–1 injected orally for 7 consecutive days before and after 5-FU injection significantly suppressed reductions in red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet counts in peripheral blood, and accelerated their recovery. Administration of SKKT also produced a slight but significant improvement in 5-FU-induced erythrocytopenia, whereas SMT and SKT could not prevent anemia. Oral injection of NYT also inhibited 5-FU-induced decreases in peripheral reticulocyte and bone marrow cell counts on day 10, and markedly hastened their recovery on day 20, in a dose-dependent manner. Erythroid progenitor colonies, such as colony forming units-erythroid and burst forming units-erythroid, formed by marrow cells from mice treated with 5-FU were significantly increased by oral administration of NYT. These findings suggest that NYT has the potential to protect against hematotoxicity, and also has hematopoietic activity, through stimulation of immature erythroid progenitor cell differentiation.
Survival benefit of an herbal formula for invigorating spleen for elderly patients with gastric cancer
1. Ai-guang ZHAO (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China 2. Wen CAO (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 3. Yan XU (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 4. Gang ZHAO (Department of General Surgery, Renji Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, China ) 5. Bing-ya LIU (Institute of Digestive Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China ) 6. Yong CAI (Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China ) 7. Jin-zu YANG (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 8. Ying GU (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 9. Wei YUAN (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 10. Ying-jie ZHU (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 11. Ying-ying HAN (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 12. Jin-kun YANG (Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China )
Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treatment of gastric cancer, but still lacking large sample controlled trial to evaluate its efficacy.
Objective: To analyze the prognostic factors of 220 elderly patients with gastric cancer, and to further study the efficacy of an herbal formula for invigorating spleen and its modifications based on syndrome differentiation of TCM in treatment of gastric cancer in elderly patients and the influence on prognosis.
Design, setting, participants and interventions: A total of 220 elderly patients aged 65 years or over with gastric cancer from Longhua Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Renji Hospital and Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical College were prospectively enrolled. All patients were assigned to either traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) group (89 cases) or non-TCHM group (131 cases). Patients in the TCHM group were treated with an herbal formula for invigorating spleen plus chemotherapy, while patients in the non-TCHM group were only treated with chemotherapy. Main outcome measures: Univariate and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine all the potential prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess the differences in survival time between TCHM group and non-TCHM group after stratification for TNM stage, surgery or chemotherapy.
Results: The 220 eligible patients were histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the stomach from 2001 to 2007. Eighty-nine cases in the TCHM group received three or more months of TCHM treatment, and 131 cases in the non-TCHM group did not receive TCHM treatment. Cox regression analysis suggested that the TNM stage, radical resection, three or more treatment cycles of chemotherapy, and TCHM treatment were independent prognostic factors (P<0.01). The patients receiving TCHM treatment demonstrated better prognosis than the other prognostic factors in multivariate analysis; the odds ratio ［Exp(β)］ of overall group was 0.322, and 95% confidence interval (CI) was from 0.212 to 0.489. Median overall survival of TCHM group was 41.129 months, and one-, three-, and five-year survival rates were 85.2%, 55.6% and 45.7% respectively. Median overall survival of non-TCHM group was 17.195 months, and one-, three-, and five-year survival rates were 63.9%, 26.9% and 21.9% respectively. In stratification analysis of stage for 96 patients who did not accepted radical resection or suffered from recurrence and metastasis (36 cases in the TCHM group, and 60 cases in the non-TCHM group), Cox regression analysis suggested that three or more treatment cycles of chemotherapy and TCHM treatment were independent prognostic factors for improving survival respectively (P<0.01). The hazard ratio ［Exp(β)］ of TCHM in stratification for late stage was 0.421, and 95% confidence interval was from 0.255 to 0.693. Median overall survivals were 17.819 months for TCHM group and 8.548 months for non-TCHM group. In stratification analysis of surgery and chemotherapy for 102 patients with Ib-Ⅳ (M0) who accepted radical resection (R0 resection) and three or more treatment cycles of chemotherapy (33 cases in the TCHM group, and 69 cases in the non-TCHM group), the disease-free survival and overall survival did not reach the median at the time of analysis. In the TCHM group, one-, three-, and five-year disease-free survival rates were 97.0%, 59.9% and 50.4%, and one-, three-, and five-year survival rates were 100.0%, 74.1% and 61.4%, respectively. In the non-TCHM group, one-, three-, and five-year disease-free survival rates were 82.6%, 51.1% and 51.1%, and one-, three-, and five-year survival rates were 86.9%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively.
Conclusion:The herbal formula for invigorating spleen has an important value for improving the prognosis of elderly patients with gastric cancer. This herbal formula shows survival benefit for advanced gastric cancer in elderly patients. The influence of TCHM on disease-free survival and overall survival of postoperative gastric cancer in elderly patients need to be further evaluated
Abstract Purpose:Wedelia chinensis is a common ingredient of anti-inflammatory herbal medicines in Taiwan and southern China. Inflammation is involved in promoting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. This study aims to test the biological effects in vivo of W. chinensis extract on prostate cancer.
Experimental Design: The in vivo efficacy and mechanisms of action of oral administration of a standardized extract of W. chinensis were analyzed in animals bearing a subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft.
Results: Exposure of prostate cancer cells to W. chinensis extract induced apoptosis selectively in androgen receptor (AR)–positive prostate cancer cells and shifted the proportion in each phase of cell cycle toward G2-M phase in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Oral herbal extract (4 or 40 mg/kg/d for 24-28 days) attenuated the growth of prostate tumors in nude mice implanted at both subcutaneous (31% and 44%, respectively) and orthotopic (49% and 49%, respectively) sites. The tumor suppression effects were associated with increased apoptosis and lower proliferation in tumor cells as well as reduced tumor angiogenesis. The antitumor effect of W. chinensis extract was correlated with accumulation of the principle active compounds wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin in vivo.
Conclusion:Anticancer action of W. chinensis extract was due to three active compounds that inhibit the AR signaling pathway. Oral administration of W. chinensis extract impeded prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Future studies of W. chinensis for chemoprevention or complementary medicine against prostate cancer in humans are thus warranted.
Prescription rules of Chinese herbal medicines in treatment of gastric cancer
1. Wen CAO (First Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospita1, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 2. Ai-guang ZHAO (First Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospita1, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China
Abstract: Analysis of the nature, tastes, channel distributions and effects of the frequently used herbal medicines in the prescriptions involved in the clinical literatures about treatment of gastric cancer published from 1988 to 2007 was made in the paper. The literatures were categorized into three types: 1) treatment of middle- and late-stage gastric cancer; 2) prevention and treatment of the recurrence and metastasis after operation; 3) Chinese herbal medicines combined with chemotherapy for enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity. The most frequently used herbal medicines in the three literature types were qi-invigorating herbs, such as Atractylodes, Astragalus, Codonopsis, Glycyrrhiza and Ginseng, etc. The herbal medicines for promoting urination to subside swelling such as tuckahoe and Semen Coicis, etc were used more frequently than the herbal medicines for regulating qi such as dried orange peel and putchuck, etc, as well as for clearing away heat to remove toxin such as spreading hedyotis herb, Herba Scutellariae Barbatae, yangtao actinidia root, and Rhizoma Paridis, etc. From another angle, the most frequently used herbal medicines for the treatment of gatric cancer were those cold, warm and neutral in nature, sweet, bitter and pungent in taste, and distributed to spleen and liver channels.
Effects of Xiaotan Sanjie Decoction on expressions of interleukin8 and its receptors in gastric tumor xenografts and gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor in mice
1. Dawei JU (Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China ) 2. Pinkang WEI (Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China 3. Huiming LIN (Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China ) 4. Dazhi SUN (Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China ) 5. Shan YU (The 309th Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091, China ) 6. juan XIU (Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China )
Objective: To explore the mechanisms of Xiaotan Sanjie Decoction (XTSJD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, in inhibiting the tumor growth and preventing recurrence by testing the protein expressions of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and its receptors chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) and chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) in gastric tumor xenografts and gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor in mice.
Methods: Fifty Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal group, normal saline (NS) group, Heat-clearing and Detoxicating Decoction (HCDD) group, tegafur (FT-207) group and XTSJD group. Except for mice in the normal group, S180 tumor block was transplanted into the gastric walls of the mice, and the mice were administered with corresponding medicine for 3 weeks. Weight of tumor xenografts was measured and tumor inhibition rate was calculated. IL-8 protein expression was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of CXCR1 and CXCR2 were tested by immunohistochemical method.
Results: The protein expressions of IL-8 and its receptors in tumor xenografts and gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor were markedly higher than those in the gastric tissue in normal mice (P<0.01); compared with HCDD and FT-207, XTSJD could significantly decrease the IL-8 protein expression in tumor xenografts and gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor (P<0.05); compared with FT-207, XTSJD could significantly decrease the CXCR1 protein expression in tumor xenografts (P<0.01), and XTSJD could also significantly decrease the CXCR1 protein expression in gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor as compared with HCDD and FT-207 (P<0.01); compared with HCDD and FT-207, XTSJD could significantly decrease the CXCR2 protein expression in tumor xenografts (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference among the three drug-treated groups in CXCR2 protein expression in gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor (P>0.05).
Conclusion: XTSJD can decrease the protein expressions of IL-8 and its receptors in tumor xenografts and gastric tissue adjacent to the tumor. It may be one of the mechanisms of XTSJD in inhibiting the tumor growth and preventing recurrence.
Survival time of advanced gastric cancer patients treated with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy
1. Ni-da CAO (The First Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 2. Ai-guang ZHAO (The First Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 3. Jin-kun YANG (The First Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China )
Background: Advanced gastric cancer has a low survival rate while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy has effects in inhibiting tumor growth, lengthening survival time and improving the quality of life.
Objective: To analyze the effects of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy on the survival time and quality of life of advanced gastric cancer patients.
Design, setting, participants and interventions: A total of 95 advanced gastric cancer patients were enrolled and divided into comprehensive group (48 cases) and control group (47 cases). The patients in the comprehensive group from the First Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, were treated with TCM therapy and chemotherapy based on the gastric cancer treatment guidelines made by the First Department of Oncology of Longhua Hospital, and the patients in the control group from Renji Hospital and Ruijin Hospital in Shanghai were treated with chemotherapy only.
Main outcome measures: The survival time in the two groups were observed and compared. The Karnofsky score, body weight, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) score, response rate and chemotherapy-related adverse events in the comprehensive group were observed.
Results: The estimated median survival time in the comprehensive group was 16.12 months, longer than 9.64 months in the control group (P＜0.05). The scores of function and symptom of EORTC QLQ-C30 in the comprehensive group decreased, while the overall health status increased, and the results indicated that the quality of life of the patients in the comprehensive group was improved. In the comprehensive group, the body weight after treatment was higher than that before treatment (P=0.037), while there was no difference in Karnofsky scores between that before and after treatment (P=0.061). All the patients in the comprehensive group were assessable. The complete response rate was 0, 3 cases had a partial response, 34 cases had stable disease, and 11 cases had disease progression. The overall response rate was 6.25% (3/48), and the disease control rate was 77.08% (37/48). No patient withdrew because of severe adverse events and there was no chemotherapy-related death.
Conclusion: Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine can prolong the survival time and improve the quality of life of advanced gastric cancer patients, and enhance the comprehensive effects
Effects of Feiyanning Decoction on gene expression of nuclear factor-κB activated by tumor necrosis factor-α in lung adenocarcinoma cell line
1. Ju-yong WANG (Tumor Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China 2. Ye JIN (Department Bioengineering, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China ) 3. Zhen-ye XU (Tumor Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China ) 4. Zhan ZHENG (Tumor Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China )
Objective: To study the effects of Feiyanning Decoction, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on gene expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549).
Methods: A549 cells were incubated with rat serum containing Feiyanning at different concentrations for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Morphology of cells was observed by an inverted microscope after treatment with reagents. The cell proliferation was examined by 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2, 4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt (WST-8) assay. The expressions of NF-κB and inhibitor κBα (IκBα) were studied by Western blotting. NF-κB-dependent luciferase reporter (3×κB-luc) was transfected for 24 h, and the cells were treated with the reagents for 24 h, and then the transcriptional activity of NF-κB promoter was detected by luciferase assay.
Results: TNF-α (1 μg/L) strongly induced the expression of NF-κB by approximately 1.76-fold compared with the control in the nuclei of A549 cells, and the induced NF-κB expression was significantly suppressed by addition of Feiyanning (P<0.01). In addition, Feiyanning inhibited the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB promoter. However, we observed no significant changes in IκBα expression (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Feiyanning Decoction can markedly inhibit human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation, which may be partly due to inhibition of NF-κB activation induced by TNF-α. It is therefore expected to be a new strategy for treating lung cancer.
A novel combination of Chinese medicines to treat advanced cancers and lymphomas in rats
Dawn N Waterhouse Department of Advanced Therapeutics, BC Cancer Research Centre, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
Chinese medicine often targets more than one system and as such comprises several compounds, often in non-purified form, with treatments therefore consisting of whole extracts of herbs rather than isolated compounds. The additive and synergistic effects of the phytochemicals in OMN54, a novel mixture of extracts from three commonly used Chinese medicine components; Ganoderma lucidum, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Scutellaria barbata, were previously demonstrated to have potent anti-cancer activity. This study aims to test whether this heterogeneous, multifunctional and multitargeted agent has an acceptable toxicity profile.
Conclusion OMN54 was found to be well tolerated in rat models. OMN54 did not cause any microscopic, anatomic or pathologic changes in exposed animals at the concentrations and under the conditions employed in this study.
Background Liqi, an herbal preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat cancer in China for centuries. We investigated the anti-tumor effects of liqi and their mechanisms in mice that had been xenografted with tumors.
Methods Sarcoma 180 tumor, Lewis lung carcinoma, and SGC-7901 cells were implanted in BALB/c mice, C57BL/6 mice, and BALB/c nude mice, respectively. Liqi was administered to subgroups of these mice. The tumor weight and size were measured. Cell cycle analysis and T lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry. The activity of NK cells and TNF was tested using cytotoxicity assay on YAC-1 cells and L929 cells, respectively, and the activity of IL-2 was tested with an IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell proliferation assay. Platelet aggregation was monitored by measuring electric impedance, and the levels of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in blood were measured by 125I-TXB2 and 125I-Keto-PGF1α radioimmunoassay.
Results The results showed that liqi inhibited tumor growth in tumor-implanted mice and arrested the cell proliferation in the G0/G1 phase and reduced the portion of cells in S and G2/M phase for SGC-7901 cells. Liqi increased the activity of NK cells and TNF-α, stimulated IL-2 production and activity, and regulated T lymphocyte subpopulations. Liqi inhibited the Lewis lung carcinoma metastasis by inhibiting platelet aggregation and normalizing the balance between TXA2 and PGI2.
Conclusion All these findings demonstrated that liqi has an anti-tumor effect in vivo. The mechanism may be related to immune regulation and anticoagulation effects.
An in vitro based investigation of the cytotoxic effect of water extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy LD on cancer cells
Shaun Willimott1, James Barker2, Lucy A. Jones1, Elizabeth I. Opara
School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK
Long Dan Xie Gan Wan (LD), a Chinese herbal remedy formulation, is traditionally used to treat a range of conditions, including gall bladder diseases, hepatitis, hyperthyroidism, migraines but it is not used for the management or treatment of cancer. However some of its herbal constituents, specifically Radix bupleuri, Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma alismatis have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the impact of LD on cancer cells in vitro.
Conclusion To the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation to suggest that LD may elicit a cytotoxic action against cancer cell lines in vitro. The results of this investigation suggest that water extracts of LD are toxic to cancer cells in vitro, triggering apoptosis possibly as a result of inducing some form of genotoxic damage. However, preliminary chemical analysis of this CHR indicates that this cytotoxic activity is due to the actions of constituents other than those discussed above. One main reason for this is linked to the differences between the preparations used in the cytotoxicity studies reported in this paper [4,6,8,9,12-18] and that used in the current study i.e. a water extract of LD. However, the possibility that interactions between the constituents in this water extract may have influenced the results observed cannot be ruled out . In conclusion, based on the findings of this investigation, the water extract of LD appears to have some chemotherapeutic potential However, further studies are required to determine what constituents within this CHR are responsible for its cytotoxic action