Abstract Purpose:Wedelia chinensis is a common ingredient of anti-inflammatory herbal medicines in Taiwan and southern China. Inflammation is involved in promoting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. This study aims to test the biological effects in vivo of W. chinensis extract on prostate cancer.
Experimental Design: The in vivo efficacy and mechanisms of action of oral administration of a standardized extract of W. chinensis were analyzed in animals bearing a subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft.
Results: Exposure of prostate cancer cells to W. chinensis extract induced apoptosis selectively in androgen receptor (AR)–positive prostate cancer cells and shifted the proportion in each phase of cell cycle toward G2-M phase in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Oral herbal extract (4 or 40 mg/kg/d for 24-28 days) attenuated the growth of prostate tumors in nude mice implanted at both subcutaneous (31% and 44%, respectively) and orthotopic (49% and 49%, respectively) sites. The tumor suppression effects were associated with increased apoptosis and lower proliferation in tumor cells as well as reduced tumor angiogenesis. The antitumor effect of W. chinensis extract was correlated with accumulation of the principle active compounds wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin in vivo.
Conclusion: Anticancer action of W. chinensis extract was due to three active compounds that inhibit the AR signaling pathway. Oral administration of W. chinensis extract impeded prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Future studies of W. chinensis for chemoprevention or complementary medicine against prostate cancer in humans are thus warranted.