Quercetin Quercetin is a member of the class of flavonoids called flavonols. It is widely distributed in the plant kingdom in rinds and barks The.main dietary sources of quercetin are onions, tea, apples, berries and red wine.
Quercetin Induces Necrosis and Apoptosis in SCC-9 Oral Cancer Cells Maricela Haghiac and Thomas Walle
Abstract Evidence has accumulated that dietary polyphenols, in particular, flavonoids, have protective effects against oral cancer. In this study, we have examined the effects of quercetin, a major dietary flavonoid, on cell growth and necrosis/apoptosis and cell cycle regulation in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-9 cells. Quercetin induced dose- and time-dependent, irreversible inhibition of cell growth and cellular DNA synthesis. Light microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase measurements showed modifications in the morphology and membrane integrity of these cells after quercetin treatment. Propidium iodide/annexin V staining showed that quercetin induced necrosis at 24 h and 48 h, whereas at 72 h cells underwent apoptosis, correlating with caspase-3 activation. Flow cytometry studies of the cell cycle distribution showed that quercetin induced mainly S-phase arrest. Thymidylate synthase (TS), a key S-phase enzyme, was inhibited in a time- and dose-dependent fashion by quercetin at the protein level. A lack of effect on TS mRNA suggested that TS down-regulation occurred at the translational level. In conclusion, our data support a view that quercetin initially induces a stress response, resulting in necrosis of these oral epithelial cells. Prolonged exposure of the surviving cells to quercetin causes apoptosis, presumably mediated by inhibition of TS protein.
The dietary bioflavonoid quercetin synergizes with epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG) to inhibit prostate cancer stem cell characteristics, invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Su-Ni Tang, Chandan Singh, Dara Nall, Daniel Meagher, Sharmila Shankar, and Rakesh K Srivastava
Background Much attention has been recently focused on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the initiation and progression of solid malignancies. Since CSCs are able to proliferate and self-renew extensively due to their ability to express anti-apoptotic and drug resistant proteins, thus sustaining tumor growth. Therefore, the strategy to eradicate CSCs might have significant clinical implications. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits stem cell characteristics of prostate CSCs, and synergizes with quercetin, a major polyphenol and flavonoid commonly detected in many fruits and vegetables.
Results Our data indicate that human prostate cancer cell lines contain a small population of CD44+CD133+ cancer stem cells and their self-renewal capacity is inhibited by EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG inhibits the self-renewal capacity of CD44+alpha2beta1+CD133+ CSCs isolated from human primary prostate tumors, as measured by spheroid formation in suspension. EGCG induces apoptosis by activating capase-3/7 and inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2, survivin and XIAP in CSCs. Furthermore, EGCG inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting the expression of vimentin, slug, snail and nuclear beta-catenin, and the activity of LEF-1/TCF responsive reporter, and also retards CSC's migration and invasion, suggesting the blockade of signaling involved in early metastasis. Interestingly, quercetin synergizes with EGCG in inhibiting the self-renewal properties of prostate CSCs, inducing apoptosis, and blocking CSC's migration and invasion. These data suggest that EGCG either alone or in combination with quercetin can eliminate cancer stem cell-characteristics.
Conclusion Since carcinogenesis is a complex process, combination of bioactive dietary agents with complementary activities will be beneficial for prostate cancer prevention and/or treatment.
Abstract Background The alkylating agent Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been used in the treatment of melanoma for decades, but when used as a monotherapy for cancer only moderate response rates are achieved. Recently, the clinical use of Temozolomide (TMZ) has become the more commonly used analog of DTIC-related oral agents because of its greater bioavailability and ability to cross the blood brain barrier. The response rates achieved by TMZ are also unsatisfactory, so there is great interest in identifying compounds that could be used in combination therapy. We have previously demonstrated that the bioflavonoid quercetin (Qct) promoted a p53-mediated response and sensitized melanoma to DTIC. Here we demonstrate that Qct also sensitizes cells to TMZ and propose a mechanism that involves the modulation of a truncated p53 family member, ΔNp73.
Methods DB-1 melanoma (p53 wildtype), and SK Mel 28 (p53 mutant) cell lines were treated with TMZ (400 μM) for 48 hrs followed by Qct (75 μM) for 24 hrs. Cell death was determined by Annexin V-FITC staining and immunocytochemical analysis was carried out to determine protein translocation.
Results After treatment with TMZ, DB-1 cells demonstrated increased phosphorylation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53. However, the cells were resistant to TMZ-induced apoptosis and the resistance was associated with an increase in nuclear localization of ΔNp73. Qct treatment in combination with TMZ abolished drug insensitivity and caused a more than additive induction of apoptosis compared to either treatment alone. Treatment with Qct, caused redistribution of ΔNp73 into the cytoplasm and nucleus, which has been associated with increased p53 transcriptional activity. Knockdown of ΔNp73 restored PARP cleavage in the TMZ treated cells, confirming its anti-apoptotic role. The response to treatment was predominantly p53 mediated as the p53 mutant SK Mel 28 cells showed no significant enhancement of apoptosis.
Conclusion This study demonstrates that Qct can sensitize cells to TMZ and that the mechanisms of sensitization involve modulation of p53 family members.
Source: BMC Cancer 2010, 10:282doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-282 LINK TO SOURCE
Quercetin and Cancer Chemoprevention Lara Gibellini1, Marcello Pinti1, Milena Nasi1, Jonas P. Montagna1, Sara De Biasi1, Erika Roat1, Linda Bertoncelli1, Edwin L. Cooper2 and Andrea Cossarizza1,*
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine, Modena, Italy and 2David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Medical Center (CHS), Los Angeles, CA, USA
ABSTRACT Several molecules present in the diet, including flavonoids,can inhibit the growth of cancer cells with an ability to act as ‘chemopreventers’. Their cancer-preventive effects have been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis as well as the antioxidant functions. The antioxidant activity of chemopreventers has recently received a great interest, essentially because oxidative stress participates in the initiation and progression of different pathological conditions, including cancer. Since antioxidants are capable of preventing oxidative damage, the wide use of natural food-derived antioxidants is receiving greater attention as potential anti-carcinogens. Among flavonoids, quercetin (Qu)is considered an excellent free-radical scavenging antioxidant,even if such an activity strongly depends on the intracellular availability of reduced glutathione. Apart from antioxidant activity, Qu also exerts a direct, pro-apoptotic effect in tumor cells, and can indeed block the growth of several human cancer cell lines at different phases of the cell cycle. Both these effects have been documented in a wide variety of cellular models as well as in animal models. The high toxicity exerted by Quon cancer cells perfectly matches with the almost total absence of any damages for normal, non-transformed cells. In this review we discuss the molecular mechanisms that are based on the biological effects of Qu, and their relevance for human health.
Conclusions The studies of Qu on cellular models offer an almost exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms that link Qu to the oxidative cell balance and to the control of cell-cycle phases. Promising results have been obtained in the evaluation of the biological effects of Qu on both cancer and normal cells: the high toxicity of Qu for cancer cells, along with the characteristic to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on normal cells only at high concentrations are crucial aspects in the field of anticancer research, whose important goal is the identification of drugs that selectively kill tumor cells without damaging normal cells. Results from cellular models invite major attention to study Qu in more complex and sophisticated animal models, such as those represented by animals with genetic defects in one or more genes that control oncogenesis, or with primary or secondary immune deficiencies. Furthermore, controlled clinical trials are needed to assess both the chemopreventive and chemoterapeutic effects of this molecule in a pure form. For this reason, investigations focused on pharmacokinetic and bioavailabilityin different regions of the organism are urgently needed.
Department of Oncology and Neurosciences, G. D'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy. email@example.com
Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, which display a variety of biological activities, including chemoprevention and tumor growth inhibition. Our aim was to investigate the effects of several polyphenols on the growth and metastatic potential of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vivo. Intraperitoneal administration of quercetin, apigenin, (-)-epigallocathechin-3-gallate (EGCG), resveratrol, and the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, at the time of i.m. injection of B16-BL6 cells into syngeneic mice, resulted in a significant, dose-dependent delay of tumor growth, without toxicity. The relative descending order of potency was EGCG > apigenin = quercetin = tamoxifen > resveratrol > control. Furthermore, polyphenols significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of a non-toxic dose of cisplatin. When tested for the ability to inhibit lung colonization, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the number of B16-BL6 colonies in the lungs in a dose-dependent manner, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. Interestingly, quercetin, apigenin, and tamoxifen (but not EGCG or resveratrol) significantly decreased the invasion of B16-BL6 cells in vitro, with quercetin and apigenin being more effective than tamoxifen. This suggests that anti-invasive activity is one of the mechanisms underlying inhibition of lung colonization by quercetin and apigenin. In conclusion, quercetin and apigenin inhibit melanoma growth and invasive and metastatic potential; therefore, they may constitute a valuable tool in the combination therapy of metastatic melanoma.