Isoflavones Extracted from Chickpea Cicer arietinum L. Sprouts Induce Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells
Rui Hu1,2,3 and
Haji Akber Aisa1,2,*
Abstract Isoflavones are important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpeas. We systematically investigated the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) on the human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed that ICS (10–60 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining showed that ICS significantly increased cytoclasis and apoptotic body formation. Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner following ICS treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that ICS increased the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of SKBr3 and MCF-7 cells with ICS increased the expression of caspase 7, caspase 9, P53, and P21 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment. Treatment using ICS also induced a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production. This is the first study to demonstrate that ICS may be a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer.
InhibitionofCellProliferationandMAPKinaseandAktPathwaysinOralSquamouscellCarcinomabyGenisteinandBiochaninA Tara L. Johnson, Maria B. Lai, James C. K. Lai andAlok Bhushan Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho, USA
High morbidity and mortality associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are largely attributable to late stage diagnosis.Despite significant advances in therapeutic strategies, the five-year survival rate for oral cancer remains at about 50%.A chemopreventive approach may be an effective alternative or adjunct to current therapies. Previous studies have shown anti-tumor effects of isoflavones in several cancers, including oral cancer.However, their mechanisms of action are still unclear. We hypothesized that isoflavones inhibit multiple signaling pathways implicated in oral carcinogenesis. To address our hypothesis, we investigated the effects of three isoflavone derivatives, genistein, biochanin Aand daidzein, on SCC15 and SCC25 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In cell proliferation experiments, we found that genistein and biochanin A inhibited SCC15 and SCC25 cell growth with anIC50 of 50 µM. We also investigated the effect of isoflavones on ERK and Akt pathways. Our results, from western blot analysis,suggest that both genistein and biochanin A induced decreases in phosphorylation of ERK and Akt at treatment concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 µM. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate a differential regulation of signaling pathways by various isoflavones in OSCC cell lines. Thus, tumor progression models can be utilized to study the preventive and therapeutic roles of isoflavones inoral cancer cell lines.
Source: eCAM Advance Access originally published online on February 29, 2008 eCAM 2010 7(3):351-358; doi:10.1093/ecam/nen011 LINK TO SOURCE