Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia Nurul AMN Hazalin,1 Kalavathy Ramasamy,1 Siong Meng Lim,1 Ibtisam Abdul Wahab,2 Anthony LJ Cole,3 and Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed4
1Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR) Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia 2Institute for the Study of Natural Remedies (iKUS), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia 3School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand 4Brain Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Abstract Background Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated.
Methods Endophytic fungi were isolated from various parts of 43 plants from the National Park Pahang, Malaysia. Extracts from solid state culture were tested for cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using the disc diffusion method
Results A total of 300 endophytes were isolated from various parts of plants from the National Park, Pahang. 3.3% of extracts showed potent (IC50 < 0.01 μg/ml) cytotoxic activity against the murine leukemic P388 cell line and 1.7% against a human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line K562. Sporothrix sp. (KK29FL1) isolated from Costus speciosus showed strong cytotoxicity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines with IC50 values of 0.05 μg/ml and 0.02 μg/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated for 8% of the extracts.
Conclusion Results indicate the potential for production of bioactive agents from endophytes of the tropical rainforest flora.