Anti-tumor effect of Archidendron lucidum (Benth.) against esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and hepatoma Chia-Yuan Liu1,2,3#, Yuen-Liang Lai4,5#, Chin-Ping Lin1, Yu-Tse Wu3, Tung-Hu Tsai3## and Yu-Jen Chen1,3,4*
1Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. 4Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 5Taipei Medical University- Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. 6Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Abstract Archidenron lucidum is an indigenous medicinal plant in Taiwan used for treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer. This study was aimed to investigate its anti-cancer effect against gastrointestinal and hepatic malignancy. We found that the 50% effective concentrations of its methanol extract (MEAL) against human esophageal cancer CE81T/VGH, hepatoma HA22T/VGH and murine colorectal cancer CT26 cells were less than 5.0 μg/mL in vitro whereas those of water extract were greater than 30 μg/mL. Cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase was observed in all three cell lines treated with MEAL. Development of hypodiploidy cells suggests that apoptosis might be one of the cell death pathways of CE81T/VGH cells. Intraperitoneal injection with 1.25 mg/kg MEAL significantly inhibited syngeneic CT26 tumor growth in BALB/c mice without obvious toxicity in terms of changes in body weight, leukocyte count and plasma creatinine and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Higher dose (2.5 mg/kg) MEAL did not further increase the anti-tumor effect, but resulted in elevation of plasma ALT level. Our results indicate that optimal dose of MEAL might possess the anti-tumor effects against esophageal, hepatocellular and colorectal cancers with a relative safety profile. Accordingly, we are purifying effective and less toxic compounds from MEAL.
Source : Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(21), pp. 5221-5229, 9 October, 2011 Link to Full Article
Antiproliferative activity of different extracts from Daphne altaica Pall. on selected cancer cells Murat Kizaibek1,3, Marzia Daniar2, Lin Li2 and Halmurat Upur3*
1Traditional Kazakh Medicine Research Institute of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, 835000 Yining, Xinjiang, P. R. China. 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medicine, Xinjiang Medical University, 830011 Urumqi, Xinjiang, P. R. China. 3Faculty of Traditional Uighur Medicine, Xinjiang Medical University, 830011 Urumqi, Xinjiang, P. R. China.
Abstract Daphne altaica Pall. (Thymelaeaceae) is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat cancer and respiratory ailments in Traditional Kazakh Medicine. In order to systematically evaluate its potential anticancer activity, six extracts of different polarity, namely: aqueous, n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol extracts were obtained from this plant and they were tested for their antiproliferative effects on four human cancer cell lines: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, hepatoma and cervical carcinoma cells. Results from the proliferation assay showed that all extracts, except for aqueous extract, exhibited a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect on all cancer cell lines. Of these extracts, two fractions obtained from partitioning of ethanol extract, namely: chloroform extract and ethyl acetate extract, could be considered a potential source of anticancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for identification and chemical characterization of the active principles.
Conclusion The results of this study represent the first evidence that barks of D. altaica possess effective antiproliferative activities on human cancer cells. Future phytochemical investigations on this medicinal plant should be encouraged.
Source : Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(15), pp. 3448-3452, 4 August, 2011 Link to Full Article
Anthocyanins in Black Raspberries Prevent Esophageal Tumors in Rats
Li-Shu Wang1,Stephen S. Hecht3,Steven G. Carmella3,Nanxiong Yu3,Bethany Larue1,Cassandra Henry1,Colleen McIntyre1,Claudio Rocha2,John F. Lechner1 and Gary D. Stoner1
Abstract Diets containing freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) suppress the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)–induced tumors in the rat esophagus. Using bioassay-directed fractionation, the anthocyanins in BRB were found to be the most active constituents for down-regulation of carcinogen-induced nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 expression in mouse epidermal cells in vitro. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to determine if the anthocyanins contribute to the chemopreventive activity of BRB in vivo. F344 rats consumed diets containing either (a) 5% whole BRB powder, (b) an anthocyanin-rich fraction, (c) an organic solvent-soluble extract (a–c each contained ∼3.8 μmol anthocyanins/g diet), (d) an organic-insoluble (residue) fraction (containing 0.02 μmol anthocyanins/g diet), (e) a hexane extract, and (f) a sugar fraction (e and f had only trace quantities of anthocyanins), all derived from BRB. Animals were fed diets 2 weeks before treatment with NMBA and throughout the bioassay. Control rats were treated with NMBA only. Animals were killed at week 30, and esophageal tumors were enumerated. The anthocyanin treatments (diet groups a–c) were about equally effective in reducing NMBA tumorigenesis in the esophagus, indicating that the anthocyanins in BRB have chemopreventive potential. The organic-insoluble (residue) fraction (d) was also effective, suggesting that components other than berry anthocyanins may be chemopreventive. The hexane and sugar diets were inactive. Diet groups a, b, and d all inhibited cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis and induced apoptosis in both preneoplastic and papillomatous esophageal tissues, suggesting similar mechanisms of action by the different berry components.
Esophageal cancer is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy (1) and the sixth most frequent cause of cancer death in the world (2). Squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype worldwide, and persons with this disease have a high rate of mortality (3). It has been estimated that more than two thirds of human cancer can be prevented through appropriate lifestyle modifications (4). Although Doll and Peto (5) reported that ∼35% of human cancer mortality is caused by diet, more than 250 population-based studies, including case-control and cohort studies, indicate that persons who eat about five servings of fruit and vegetables per day have approximately half the risk of developing cancer—particularly cancers of the digestive and respiratory tracts—than do those who eat fewer than two servings per day (4). Chemoprevention can play an integral role in the overall strategy of reducing the incidence of cancer and is a potentially viable approach for reducing the risk of esophageal cancer in high-risk individuals (6).
Experimental studies provide evidence that dietary compounds prevent cancer through multiple mechanisms (4). These include the induction of cellular detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, which protect against cellular damage caused by carcinogens and endogenously generated reactive oxygen species. Dietary compounds can also reduce cell proliferation rates, inflammation, and angiogenesis and stimulate apoptosis, normal cell differentiation, and cell-cell adhesion, among other effects (4). Because the process of cancer development involves multiple stages (i.e., initiation and promotion/progression), chemopreventive compounds have been classified broadly as blocking agents, which impede the initiation stage, or as suppressing agents, which arrest or reverse the promotion/progression stage (7).
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds that provide pigmentation to many fruits and vegetables, such as berries, red grapes, purple sweet potato, and red cabbages (8). Berries are rich in anthocyanins, which account for ∼5% to 10% of their dry weight (9). We and others have suggested that anthocyanins may be cancer preventive because they (a) inhibit cell transformation, in part, by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and activator protein-1 expression (10); (b) suppress inflammation by blocking the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression (10); and (c) induce apoptosis in cancer cells through the activation of reactive oxygen species/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase–mediated caspases (8).