Apoptosis Induction in Primary Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines and Retarded Tumor Growth in SCID Mice by Sulforaphane
Ming-Jenn Chen,1 Wei-Yu Tang,2 Che-Wei Hsu,3 Ya-Ting Tsai,2 June-Fu Wu,3 Chen-Wei Lin,3 Ya-Min Cheng,4 and Yi-Chiang Hsu2,5 1Division of Traumatology, Department of Surgery, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan 2Graduate Institute of Medical Science, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 396, Sec. 1, Changrong Road, Gueiren District, Tainan City 71101, Taiwan 3Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 396, Sec. 1, Changrong Road, Gueiren District, Tainan City 71101, Taiwan 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 5Innovative Research Center of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 396, Sec. 1, Changrong Road, Gueiren District, Tainan City 71101, Taiwan
.Abstract We have investigated the anticancer effects of the dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN) on colorectal cancer (CRC), using primary cancer cells lines isolated from five Taiwanese colorectal cancer patients as the model for colorectal cancer. SFN-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (SFN 6.25 μM) and subG1 (SFN 12.5 and 25 μM) as determined by flow cytometry. In addition, treated cells showed nuclear apoptotic morphology that coincided with an activation of caspase-3, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Incubations at higher SFN doses (12.5 and 25 μM) resulted in cleavage of procaspase-3 and elevated caspase-2, -3, -8, and -9 activity, suggesting that the induction of apoptosis and the sulforaphane-induced mitosis delay at the lower dose are independently regulated. Daily SFN s.c. injections (400 micromol/kg/d for 3 weeks) in severe combined immunodeficient mice with primary human CRC (CP1 to CP5) s.c. tumors resulted in a decrease of mean tumor weight by 70% compared with vehicle-treated controls. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, sulforaphane may have antitumor activity in established colorectal cancer.
Source:Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 415231, 13 pages doi:10.1155/2012/415231 Link to Full Article
Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study Li Tang1 , Gary R Zirpoli1 ,Vijayvel Jayaprakash1 , Mary E Reid2 , Susan E McCann1 , Chukwumere E Nwogu3 , Yuesheng Zhang1 , Christine B Ambrosone1 andKirsten B Moysich1
1 Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA 2 Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA 3 Department of Thoracic Surgery, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Abstract Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed.
Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis.
Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend < 0.05). Interestingly, significant associations were observed for intake of fruits and total vegetables with lung cancer among never smokers. Conversely, significant inverse associations with cruciferous vegetable intake were observed primarily among smokers, in particular former smokers, although significant interactions were not detected between smoking and intake of any food group. Of four lung cancer histological subtypes, significant inverse associations were observed primarily among patients with squamous or small cell carcinoma - the two subtypes more strongly associated with heavy smoking.
Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers.