Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk:results of a randomized trial 1,2
Joan M Lappe, Dianne Travers-Gustafson, K Michael Davies, Robert R Recker, and Robert P Heaney
ABSTRACT Background: Numerous observational studies have found supplemental calcium and vitamin D to be associated with reduced risk of common cancers. However, interventional studies to test this effect are lacking.
Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to determine the efficacy of calcium alone and calcium plus vitamin D in reducing incident cancer risk of all types.
Design: This was a 4-y, population-based, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome was fracture incidence, and the principal secondary outcome was cancer incidence. The subjects were 1179 community-dwelling women randomly selected from the population of healthy postmenopausal women aged55 y in a 9-county rural area of Nebraska centered at latitude 41.4°N. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1400– 1500 mg supplemental calcium/d alone (Ca-only), supplemental calcium plus 1100 IU vitamin D3/d (Ca D), or placebo.
Results: When analyzed by intention to treat, cancer incidence was lower in the CaDwomen than in the placebo control subjects (P 0.03). With the use of logistic regression, the unadjusted relative risks (RR) of incident cancer in the CaDand Ca-only groups were 0.402 (P0.01) and 0.532 (P0.06), respectively. When analysis was confined to cancers diagnosed after the first 12 mo, RR for the Ca D group fell to 0.232 (CI: 0.09, 0.60; P 0.005) but did not change significantly for the Ca-only group. In multiple logistic regression models, both treatment and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significant, independent predictors of cancer risk.
Conclusions: Improving calcium and vitamin D nutritional status substantially reduces all-cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
NOTE Non dairy sources of Calcium Sesame Seeds (A quarter cup of sesame seeds has 351 mg calcium), Spinach (A cup of boiled spinach has 245 mg), Collard Greens (A cup of boiled collard greens has 266 mg) Blackstrap Molasses (One tablespoon has about 137 mg), Kelp (One cup of raw kelp has 136 mg), Tahini (Two tablespoons of raw tahini -sesame seed butter have 126 mg), Broccoli (Two cups of boiled broccoli have 124 mg), Swiss Chard (One cup of boiled chard has 102 mg), Kale (One cup of boiled kale has 94 mg)Brazil Nuts (Two ounces of Brazil nuts -12 nuts have 90 mg), Celery (Two cups of raw celery have 81 mg), Almonds (One ounce of almonds -23 nuts has 75 mg), Papaya (One medium papaya has 73 mg), Flax Seeds (Two tablespoons of flax seeds have 52 mg), Oranges (One medium orange has 52 mg). Eating a varied diet rich in dark leafy greens, fruit, nuts, and seeds will give you plenty of calcium Sources of Vitamin D - The body makes vitamin D when exposed to the ultraviolet B (UVB) rays in sunlight. You probably need from 5 to 30 minutes of exposure to the skin on your face, arms, back or legs twice every week dependent on season, weather conditions and country living. Food sources of Vitamin D - Cod Liver Oil, Fish (salmon being the highest), Milk + Margarine (Vitamin D fortified), Eggs (yolk contains Vit D), Cereals (Vit D fortified), Liver and Beef, Cheese