Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study Mikhail G Dozmorov1, Qing Yang2, Weijuan Wu23, Jonathan Wren1, Mahmoud M Suhail4, Cole L Woolley5, D Gary Young5, Kar-Ming Fung267 and Hsueh-Kung Lin238*
Abstract Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells.
Methods The effects of frankincense (1,400–600 dilutions) (v/v) and sandalwood (16,000–7,000 dilutions) (v/v) essential oils on cell viability were studied in established human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal human bladder urothelial UROtsa cells using a colorimetric XTT cell viability assay. Genes that responded to essential oil treatments in human bladder cancer J82 cells were identified using the Illumina Expression BeadChip platform and analyzed for enriched functions and pathways. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
Results Human bladder cancer J82 cells were more sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of frankincense essential oil than the immortalized normal bladder UROtsa cells. In contrast, sandalwood essential oil exhibited a similar potency in suppressing the viability of both J82 and UROtsa cells. Although frankincense and sandalwood essential oils activated common pathways such as inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 signaling), each essential oil had a unique molecular action on the bladder cancer cells. Heat shock proteins and histone core proteins were activated by frankincense essential oil, whereas negative regulation of protein kinase activity and G protein-coupled receptors were activated by sandalwood essential oil treatment.
Conclusion The effects of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils on J82 cells and UROtsa cells involved different mechanisms leading to cancer cell death. While frankincense essential oil elicited selective cancer cell death via NRF-2-mediated oxidative stress, sandalwood essential oil induced non-selective cell death via DNA damage and cell cycle arrest.
Dietary intake of meat, fruits, vegetables, and selective micronutrients and risk of bladder cancer in the New England region of the United States J W Wu1, A J Cross1, D Baris1, M H Ward1, M R Karagas2, A Johnson3, M Schwenn4, S Cherala5, J S Colt1, K P Cantor1,6, N Rothman1, D T Silverman1 and R Sinha1
1National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
2Dartmouth Medical School, Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1 Medical Center Drive, 7927 Rubin Building, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
3Vermont Cancer Registry, 108 Cherry Street, Burlington, VT 05402, USA
4Maine Cancer Registry, 286 Water Street, Fourth Floor, 11 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333, USA
5New Hampshire department of Health and Human Services, 129 Pleasant Street, Concord, NH 03301, USA
6KP Cantor Environmental LLC, 708 Bonifant Street, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
Background: Despite many studies on diet and bladder cancer, there are areas that remain unexplored including meat mutagens, specific vegetable groups, and vitamins from diet.
Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of bladder cancer in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. A total of 1171 cases were ascertained through hospital pathology records and cancer registries from 2001 to 2004. Overall, 1418 controls were identified from the Department of Motor Vehicles (<65 years) and Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (65–79 years) and were frequency-matched to cases by state, sex, and age (within 5 years). Diet was assessed with a self-administered Diet History Questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Processed meat intake was positively associated with bladder cancer (highest vs lowest quartile OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.00–1.65; Ptrend=0.035), with a stronger association for processed red meat (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.08–1.84; Ptrend=0.024). There were no associations between intake of fruits or vegetables and bladder cancer. We did, however, observe an inverse association with vitamin B12 intake (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61–0.99; P=0.019).
Conclusion: Vitamin B12 from diet may be protective against bladder cancer, whereas consuming processed meat may increase risk.
Antrodia camphorata extract induces replicative senescence in superficial TCC, and inhibits the absolute migration capability in invasive bladder carcinoma cells Chiung-Chi Peng a,b,1, Kuan-Chou Chena,c,1, Robert Y. Peng a,d, Charng-Cherng Chyaud, Ching-Hua Sua,e, Hsiu Mei Hsieh-Li a,f,∗
a Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Xing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan b Department of Nursing, Cardinal Tien College of Nursing, No. 364, Chung Cheng Road, Hsintien City, Taipei Hsien 23148, Taiwan c Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Xing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan d Research Institute of Medicinal Science and Technology, Hung-Kuang University, No. 34, Chun-Chie Road, Shalu City, Taichung Hsien 43302, Taiwan e Graduate Institute of Biomedical Material, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wu-Xing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan f Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan
Abstract The Antrodia camphorata crude extract (ACCE), an extract obtained from a precious traditional Chinese folkloric herbal medicine Zhan-Ku (a camphor tree mushroom) since the 18th century, has showed rather significant inhibitory effects on the growth and proliferation of the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) cell lines RT4, TSGH-8301, and T24. On treatment with ACCE at 100 g/mL, the p53-independent overexpression of p21 with simultaneous down alteration of pRbwas observed inRT4, whichwas thus speculative of proceeding through a mechanism of replicative senescence. On the contrary treatment with ACCE, at 50 g/mL, resulting in simultaneous down-regulations of Cdc2 and Cyclin B1, with suppression of the absolute migrating capability of the two cell lines TSGH-8301 and T24, and eventually the cell deaths. We conclude that ACCE can be rather effective and beneficial in suppression of both the superficial cancer cell line RT4 and the metastatic cell lines (TSGH-8301 and T24) through different mechanisms.
Human urinary bladder cancer T24 cells are susceptible to the Antrodia camphorata extracts Chiung-Chi Peng a, Kuan-Chou Chen a,b, Robert Y. Peng c, Ching-Hua Su a,d, Hsiu Mei Hsieh-Li a,e,*
a Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC b Department of Urology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC c Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan d Graduate Institute of Biomedical Material, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC e Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan, ROC
Abstract Bladder cancer has been cited to result from the neoplastic lesion with environmental and/or occupational factors identified as causatives. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Most of the bladder cancer patients die from the invasive, metastatic TCC that has turned out to be resistant to chemotherapy. T24 cells, a cell line established from a human urinary bladder cancer patient, are high-grade and invasive TCC. T24 cells were found very susceptible to ACCE at concentration of 50 mg/mL. MTT assay showed that the cell growth and proliferation were inhibited to 50% of the control when treated with ACCE for 72 h, at which the cell proliferation suppressing rate revealed K4.4!103 cells/mg per day. Comparing the expressions of the cell cycle biomarkers Cdc2 and Cyclin B1 by the western blot analysis, a phase G2M arrest was confirmed. Both the wound scratch assay and the transwell motility assay indicated that ACCE was very effective anti-metastatic against T24 cells. Furthermore, the active form of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was also found totally suppressed as revealed by zymography at 72 h post-incubation with ACCE, while the light and electron microscopic images have apparently revealed cell membrane damages on T24 cells when treated with ACCE (50 mg/mL). Moreover, both the wound scratch and the transwell assays have demonstrated the migration capability of T24 cells has been significantly retarded to 1.5-fold at same dosage of ACCE used. In conclusion, ACCE is a good anti-cancer agent, being effective in inducing phase G2M arrest, acting as an anti-proliferative, and an anti-metastatic agent against bladder cancer cell T24 cells.
Diallyl trisulfide induces Bcl-2 and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis via downregulation of Akt phosphorylation in human T24 bladder cancer cells Yun-Bin Wang, Jie Qin, Xiang-Yi Zheng, Yu Bai, Kai Yang, Li-Ping Xie ABSTRACT It is well known that the garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are effective to inhibit a variety of human cancers such as prostate, breast, colon, skin, lung, and bladder cancers. Herein, the pro-apoptotic effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), one of garlic-derived OSCs, on T24 bladder cancer cells were investigated. The results demonstrated that DATS suppressed proliferation of T24 bladder cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner which was associated with induced G2/M Phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, DATS inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt activation that, in turn, results in modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to enhanced apoptosis of T24 cells. These findings suggest that DATS may be an effective way for treating human bladder and other types of cancers.
Source: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology via Find articles.com LINK TO SOURCE
Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity Mark Barton Frank1 , Qing Yang2 , Jeanette Osban1 , Joseph T Azzarello2,3 , Marcia R Saban3 , Ricardo Saban3 , Richard A Ashley2 , Jan C Welter4 , Kar-Ming Fung5 and Hsueh-Kung Lin2,3,6
1 Arthritis and Immunology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation Microarray Research Facility, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA 2 Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA 3 Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA 4 Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA 5 Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA 6 Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Abstract Background Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells.
Conclusion Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.